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Bill McCarthy and John Hagan (2005)

Danger and the Decision to Offend

Social Forces, 83(3):1065--1096.

Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, & respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger -- the possibility of pain -- figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern states typically eschew violence, many victims, vigilantes, & others assault offenders. This violence is typically more certain, swift, & severe than other sanctions, & fear of injury likely deters many potential offenders. Yet the possibility of pain may be irrelevant to individuals who boldly believe in their unassailability. Consistent with our hypotheses, we find that perceptions about danger are significantly associated with involvement in theft, drug selling, & prostitution among homeless youth, & that these effects are independent of perceptions about a crime's excitement, profit, or other returns. Our results suggest that dangers play a key but typically neglected role in the genesis of these crimes. 6 Tables, 79 References. Adapted from the source document.

Robbery, *Pain, *Threat, *Offenders, *Perceptions, Prostitution, *Crime, *Deterrence, Drug Trafficking, Homelessness, *Youth, article, 2147: social problems and social welfare; sociology of crime
Zimring, F E; Hawkins, G J. Deterrence; the legal threat in crime control. Deterrence; the legal threat in crime control (1973): xiv-376. University of Chicago Press

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