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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Patriarchy, Resources, and Specialization: Marital Decision-Making Power in Urban China

This article examines influences of patriarchal ideas and practices, relative resources, and housework specialization on three dimensions of marital decision-making power in urban China. The authors analyze mundane, child-related, and economic decisions using data from a 2000 national sample of 8,300 married urban individuals from 178 cities. Gender ideology and gendered patterns of inequality remain the most salient determinants of marital decision-making power. Specialization in housework bestows power on wives in mundane and child-related decisions and extends the existing pattern of gendered specialization in housework and breadwinning into wives' prevalence in mundane decisions and husbands' dominance in economic decisions. There is little support for resource theory: wives fail to use their relative income to bargain for more power. Housework, not relative income, boosts Chinese wives' marital decision-making power in mundane and child-related decisions, indicating the absence of a ``transitional equalitarian'' value system and a collective rather than an individualistic orientation in marital power process.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Uneven transitions: Period- and cohort-related changes in gender attitudes in China, 1995-2007

This paper analyzes temporal variations in two gender attitudes in China: beliefs about gender equality and perspectives on women's combined work and family roles. It uses the most currently available population series from the 1995, 2001 and 2007 World Value Surveys of 4500 respondents and a series of multilevel cross-classified models to properly estimate period and cohort effects. Attitudes toward women's dual roles manifest neither period nor cohort effects; the population displays a universal high level of acceptance of women's paid employment. Orientations toward gender equality manifest both cohort and period effects: members of the youngest cohort of both sexes hold the most liberal attitudes; the positive effect of college education has increased over time. Attitude toward gender equality in China displays neither a shift toward conservatism nor an over-time trend toward egalitarianism in 1995-2007, a time of rapid economic growth. [Copyright Elsevier Inc.]

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

The Quality of Life in China

The Asia Barometer Survey of 2,000 respondents reveals that substantial majorities of the Chinese people experience feelings of happiness, enjoyment, and accomplishment. In fact, the proportion experiencing these indicators of a high quality of life are larger in China than in some more prosperous countries. Favorable historical comparison, sustained high economic growth, satisfaction with interpersonal life, and a high percentage of married people are among the explanations for China's prevalence of subjective well-being. The Chinese people's high levels of satisfaction with their interpersonal, material, and nonmaterial life domains, their positive assessments of their relative living standards, and their high rate of marriage are three direct positive influences on subjective well-being. Value priorities and other demographic characteristics also have indirect bearings on subjective well-being in China. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Coming of age in changing times: Occupational aspirations of American youth, 1966-1980

Young people in the United States are driven by an ideology of high achievement and hold ambitious occupational aspirations, yet little is known about the process by which they negotiate social conditions to come to terms with life's limitations. We use a life-course perspective to examine change in prestige, education, earning potential, and sex type dimensions in occupational aspirations in the U.S., using longitudinal data on cohorts of young people ages 14-29 during the period between 1966 and 1980. After their initial formation in childhood and adolescence, occupational aspirations are regulated by experiences in the educational system, the labor market, and for women, the adult family. The Civil Rights and the Women's Movements contributed to age-, cohort-, and period-related increases in women and black men's occupational aspirations. The economic downturn after 1973 also played a role, reducing young men's occupational aspirations and reverting black men's aspirations to the same level as that prior to the 1970s, negating the positive influences of the Civil Rights Movement. There is no evidence that the Vietnam War produced a net change in young people's aspirations. These findings show that after their initial formation under ascriptive influences, occupational aspirations continue to evolve as new life experiences associated with changed societal values and opportunity structure provide impetus for change. Despite these perturbations, socioeconomic background, race, and gender retain a pervasive impact on the regulation of young people's aspirations in adolescent and young adulthood in the United States. [Copyright 2007 Elsevier Ltd.]

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Global Economy and Gender Inequalities: The Case of the Urban Chinese Labor Market

Objectives This article examines the effects of economic globalization on gender inequalities in urban China. It argues that the significance of economic globalization on gender inequality depends on its impact on job queues in the labor market of a country. Methods Using both individual- and city-level data, and a series of multilevel linear and logistic models, we analyze the effects of three city-level variables on the gender gap in income: foreign direct investment (FDI) per capita, growth rate of FDI, and opening up to overseas investment early on. We also examine gender differences in employment in high-paying foreign-invested firms, and in lower-paying export-oriented manufacturing. Results We find no variation in gender gap in income among cities of varying levels of FDI, growth rates of FDI, or whether they were among the earliest to open up to international investment. Women are more likely to be employed in export-oriented manufacturing industries that offer lower wages and are less likely to work in high-paying foreign firms and joint ventures. Conclusions These results suggest that economic globalization profoundly influences gender inequalities by changing the nature of job queues, and men and women are sorted and matched into jobs accordingly. Economic globalization contributed to and perpetuated a gendered distribution of male and female workers in the Chinese urban labor market in the late 1990s. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Market Transition and Gender Segregation in Urban China

Objectives. This article analyzes the impact of the new form of economic segmentation, which emerged in urban China during the market transition, on gender segregation & earnings differentials. Methods. I compare both over-time & across-city change in gender segregation, & use a series of multi-level cross-classified models based on data at three levels: a 1995 national sample of individual workers, industry-sector data for 1990 & 1995, & city-level data for 1995. Results. Gender segregation by ownership sector has declined over time now that the state sector has become differentiated & its relative economic advantages wanes. Both earnings differentiation & gender segregation among industries have increased with marketization. In the most marketized cities, the earnings of workers of both sexes in jobs with high rates of female entry are penalized, indicating that marketization exacerbated the negative effect of job feminization on earnings. Conclusions. These findings lend support for the ``queuing'' perspective that a decline in jobs' relative wages leads to feminization. The making of the Chinese market economy has created a new set of institutional arrangements, which includes that between job feminization & wages. Tables, Figures, References. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Education and Gender Egalitarianism: The Case of China

This study examined Chinese attitudes toward women's careers, marriage rights, sexual freedom, & the importance of having sons using a 1991 national sample of individuals & community-level data & through a series of nested multilevel models. Education influences gender attitudes in multiple ways at both the micro- & macrolevels. Better-educated individuals hold more egalitarian gender attitudes, & this positive effect of individual education is larger for women than for men, indicating a strong empowerment effect for women. Egalitarian gender attitudes trickle down through education, as individuals in communities with high education are socialized toward more egalitarian attitudes. Community education has a larger effect toward the egalitarian direction on the attitude toward the importance of having sons than on the attitude toward women's marriage rights, indicating that change in the latter attitude occurred earlier & has now spread via education. These findings show that education is a vehicle of socialization that is used by both the domestic power elite (the Communist Party) & the Western culture. 3 Tables, 1 Appendix, 98 References. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Market Transition and Gender Gap in Earnings in Urban China

We examine the relationship between market transition & gender gap in earnings in urban People's Republic of China. We analyze change in the gender gap in human capital, political capital, labor-force placement, & family structure; change in the amount of monetary return to these determinants; & the changing significance of these sources of influence. Analysis of two national samples from the 1988 & 1995 Chinese Household Income Project & city-level data for 1995 reveals neither longitudinal change nor city-level variation in the gender gap in earnings. Despite this stability, the proportion of the gender gap in earnings attributable to education & occupational segregation increased over time. This change was disproportional, occurring largely only in the most marketized cities. In these highly marketized cities, the significance of market-related mechanisms -- education, occupation, & industry-placement -- increased, while the contribution of redistribution-related mechanisms -- affiliation with the state sector, party membership, & seniority -- decreased. These changes indicate that the Chinese market transition is a nonlinear, cumulative process. 7 Tables, 84 References. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Intercity Variation in Gender Inequalities in China: Analysis of a 1995 National Survey

Recent research portrays a mixed picture of the impact of post-1978 economic reforms on gender inequality in the People's Republic of China. We analyze data from a 1995 national survey of urban China (10,967 individuals in 55 cities) & city-level data compiled from Chinese statistical yearbooks to show inter-city co-variations between an index of marketization & a set of indicators of gender inequality in the labor markets. Our analysis shows gender gaps in human capital, political capital, labor market placement, & work earnings. Most of these gender inequalities remain constant across cities of varying degrees of product, labor, & capital marketization. To the extent that the amount of gender inequality is correlated with marketization, this association is a nonmonotonic one, indicating a nonlinear, accumulative marketization process. Major changes have taken place in the most marketized cities, where the gender disparity in affiliation with the state sector has diminished & gender-based occupational segregation has been on the rise. 6 Tables, 2 Figures, 1 Appendix, 47 References. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Communist Party Membership and Regime Dynamics in China

This article uses event history analyses to examine how the criteria of political screening & educational credentials evolved in the attainment of Chinese Communist Party membership during the period, 1949-1993, & how party membership, in turn, influenced individual mobility into elite political & managerial positions. We argue that political screening is a persistent feature & a survival strategy of all communist parties & that the mechanisms of ensuring political screening are affected by the regime's agendas in different historical periods. Using data from surveys conducted in Shanghai & Tianjin in 1993, we found that measures of political screening were persistently significant predictors of party membership attainment in all post-1949 periods & that party membership was positively associated with mobility into positions of political & managerial authority during the post-1978 reform era. Education emerged to be a significant predictor of Communist party membership in the post-1978 period. These findings indicate that the People's Republic of China has made historical shifts to recruit among the educated to create a technocratic elite that is both occupationally competent & politically screened. 6 Tables, 1 Figure, 73 References. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Wage and Job Inequalities in the Working Lives of Men and Women in Tianjin

Offers a cohort analysis of data from a 1993 household survey of 1,042 adults in Tianjin, People's Republic of China, to explore gender inequalities in employment opportunities & income, which have persisted despite decreases in such inequalities in the society as a whole as a result of profound changes in the economy & class structure. Respondents (Rs) are grouped into 5 cohorts on the basis of period of labor force entry, 1923-1993, & results are compared to those of a similar survey conducted in 1978. Several background characteristics linked to gender differences in jobs are identified, noting that education & membership in the Communist Party were significant across Rs' working careers & did not vary consistently across cohorts; the variable effect of age is discussed. Gender & cohort differences in five job dimensions -- occupation, work sector unit, work unit rank, wage, & retirement -- are described. Factors in the wage determination process that contribute to women's disadvantaged position are revealed, along with the lack of opportunities for job advancement associated with job change for women relative to men. 7 Tables. K. Hyatt Stewart

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Gender-Related Change in Occupational Aspirations

Uses national longitudinal data for 1944-1954 & 1957-1965 birth cohorts (total N = 13,678 cases) to analyze change in the occupational aspirations of young people in the US, late 1960s-1970s. Because this change preceded significant change in the distribution of women in the occupational structure, it is argued to be primarily a manifestation of cultural change resulting from the resurgence of the women's movement of the late 1960s & early 1970s. Gender-related change in occupational aspirations occurred broadly across social classes & racial groups, although it was greater among those whose parents were highly educated. As a result, the effect of parental socioeconomic status on the earning potential & sex type of occupational aspirations increased for women. 5 Tables, 60 References. Adapted from the source document.

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Xiaoling Shu, 舒晓灵

Characterizing Occupations with Data from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles

Procedures to create comparable indices of occupational characteristics for the 1960-1980 US Census detailed occupational classifications through reconciliation of fourth edition Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) data to the census occupational classifications are described. The procedures involved reconciliation of 1960 & 1970 census data to compute indices of 1960 DOT classification variables from measures of 1970 DOT data variables. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed six summary dimensions of occupational characteristics: (1) substantive complexity; (2) motor skill; (3) physical perception; (4) social skill; (5) physical demands; & (6) working conditions. The use of such occupation measures for cohort or other temporal comparisons using census & DOT data is discussed. 7 Tables, 1 Figure, 26 References. D. Generoli

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